Балтийский архив. Том 7. Summaries


TATJANA SHOR.
NEWSPAPER "PETSERLANE - PECHERIANIN" AS A FIRST EXPERIENCE OF AN INTEGRATION PUBLISHING IN ESTONIA.
In 1920 in Pechory local educational society with financial support of self-government started to issue Estonian-Russian paper named "Petserlane - Pecherianin", which was published since 16 of July until 10 of December 1920. There were 39 issues of this unique issue, which preceded issuing of a Russian capital emigrant newspaper "Posldenie Izvestija" with almost a month. Newspaper is interesting not only with the fact, that it were first in Pechory district, but it was one of a few known attempts to join multinational society of Pechory district with European standard of life. Source of the initiative was a small group who knew the low level of cultural requirements of their audience, but who nevertheless risked with their time and money to bring into life their dream about educated district. First editor of the Russian paper and an author of many publications was a beginner literary man and a teacher in the local real school V. Adams, who was writing under an alias Vladimir Aleksandrovskij.

AURIKA MEIMRE.
PYOTR PILSKY AND HIS EMOLUMENTS.
The article deals with a problem of author's emoluments received by well-known Russian literary critic Pyotr Pilsky, who lived in Estonia between 1922 and 1927. Leaving in Estonia P. Pilsky contributed his articles to Russian daily newspapers "Poslednie Izvestia ("The latest News") in 1922 - 1926, and "Nasha Gazeta" ("Our Newspaper"), and in Latvia - "Segodnya" ("Today"), and "Segodnya Vecherom" ("Today's Evening"). Within the abovementioned period P. Pilsky published about 1000 articles in Estonian Russian newspaper "Poslednie Izvestia". One third of these essays were published within 10 months of 1923. The main object of the paper are author's emoluments received by Pilsky in 1923 and ways of spending them. Some articles by P. Pilsky from published in Riga and Tallinn newspapers "Segodnya" and "Nasha Gazeta" in 1922 and 1927 are presented in the appendix.

GRIGORIY POTASHENKO.
RUSSIAN OLD BELIEVERS OF POLAND AND LITHUANIA IN THE 1920S AND 1930S.
(On materials of a press of the Old Believers of that time) Nowadays, few people in Lithuania have an opportunity to use magazines "Vestnik Vysshego Staroobriadcheskogo Soveta v Pol'she" ("Bulletin of Supreme Council of the Old Believers in Poland"; 1929 - 1934), "Kalendar' Vysshego Staroobriadcheskogo Soveta v Pol'she" ("Calendar of Supreme Council of the Old Believers in Poland"; 1936 - 1939), which were issued by Supreme Council of the Old Believers in Vilnius, and "Kitezh-grad" (1933), which was let out by the teachers and participants of spiritual course in Kaunas. The materials of the present publication acquaint with the important features of religious, cultural and educational activity Russian Old Believers (Pomorians) in Poland and Lithuania in the period between the World War I and World War II reflected on pages of their periodic press.

PAVEL LAVRINEC.
K. D. BALMONT. LETTERS TO F. I. SHURAVIN (1928 - 1937).
This publication of 27 letters from France written by Russian poet Konstantin Balmont in 1928 - 1937 to the teacher and literati Fyodor Shuravin (Teodoras Suravinas) living at that time in Jurbarkas (Lithuania) represents a history of preparation and publishing in Riga a collection of "Lithuanian Folk Fairy Tales" in Russian translation (1931). Balmont's interest to Lithuanian culture is conditioned, from one hand, by the legend of Lithuanian origination of his ancestors and, from the other hand, by hard material being of emigrants and looking-for new audience. The publication of letters gives an opportunity to evaluate editor principles and experience of Balmont, specifies circumstances of forthcoming articles by the writer-emigrant about Slavic and Lithuanian folklore in Russian and Lithuanian newspapers and magazines, works out in details his relations with Russian periodicals. Two articles by Konstantin Balmont from published in Riga newspaper "Segodnya" ("Today") 1928 - 1929 directly connected to the letters and containing some translations of "Lithuanian Folk Fairy Tales" performed by Fyodor Shuravin are presented in the appendix.

ASIJA KOVTUN.
MYKOLAS BANEVICIUS ON RUSSIAN LITERATURE.
The article reviews works written by lecturer of Lithuanian University in Kaunas Mykolas Banevicius in the field of Russian literature. This Lithuanian literary critic was Russian by birth. His real name was Mikhail Podshibiakin (1883 - 1963). After he escaped to Lithuania from Bolsheviks terror, he lectured Russian language and literature, published his articles in Lithuanian magazines. The author of the article in details analyzes one of the biggest works written by Podshibiakin-Banevicius "Proletarian Literature in Soviet Russia", published in series of University scientific works "Darbai ir dienos" (1930). The literary critic reviewed literary movement in 1920 from the overlap of real literature till the triumph of primitive and ideologically converted texts.

LYUDMILA SPROGE, VERA VAVERE.
NOVEL ON RUSSIAN EMIGRATION WRITTEN BY AUSTRA OZOLINA-KRAUZE.
There are at least two works dedicated to the theme of Russian emigration in the creative work of Latvian writer Austra Ozolina-Krauze (1890 - 1941): a novel "Virpulu durvis" ("In turning doors"; 1929) and a play "Kira grib spelet karu" ("Kira wants to play war"; 1932). The article analyses a novel translated into Russian and published in Soviet Union (1930) and how modern critics reacted on it. A motif of sunset of old Europe is one of the dominating in the ideology of the work. All plotlines run through artefacts of playing space: plays between different branches of political emigration, hunting of the fortune by hotel workers, gambling, a life according to the rules of gambling and superstitions of the players. The novel reflected how an image of Russian emigration was composing in creative consciousness of contemporaries of other culture.

SERGEI ISSAKOV.
THE NOTE BY A. K. BAIOV "RUSSIAN EMIGRATION IN ESTONIA" .
Publication, foreword, and commentary by S. G. Issakov. The published note is being kept in the archives of Hoover Institution on War, Revolution, and Peace attached to Stanford University (archive of Baroness Maria Vrangel, # 52 - 6). It was written in July of 1931 in Tallinn (Reval) on request of Baroness M. Vrangel who began collecting the materials for the future Archives of the Russian Revolution. The author of the note was a lieutenant-general, Aleksei Baiov (1871 - 1935), former professor of the Academy of the General Staff in St.-Petersburg (till the revolution of 1917), a prominent historian of the Russian art of war, an emigrant, the leader of the right-wing monarchical unions in Estonia from 1919. In his note, A. Baiov describes the state of Russian emigrants in Estonia, the attitude of authorities and natives to them, the system of philanthropic organisations, the state of the Orthodox Church and Russian education, the local Russian cultural life. The note of Baiov is the only known document that is characteristic of the point of view of Russian right-wing emigrants - monarchists on the situation in Estonia in 1920s - early 1930s.

VICTOR BOIKOV.
THE HISTORY OF A LEGEND.
The above article, written on the basis of some new, research materials, reveals hardly ever known fact of the destiny of the tow-boat "Kitoboy" that took place during the Civil War 1918-1920 in Russia.

DARIUS STALIUNAS.
MURAVJEV'S VIEW ON ETHNOPOLITICAL SITUATION IN NORTHWEST TERRITORIES (1863 - 1865).
The article analyses a place of non dominant ethnic groups of Northwest Territories in ethnopolitical program created by M. Muravjev. The analysis gives us an opportunity to understand the main criteria, which applied governor-general to formulate his demands towards these ethnic groups. The main criterion was belonging to definite social group. Social elite was attributed to unreliable group (with the exception of Russians and Baltic Germans). According to his view it was Polish elite to which peasants were opposed. Religion was the second criterion of unreliability denomination. Catholicism was hostile denomination towards Russian Empire whereas Russian Orthodox Church was a support. Following these criteria it was difficult to define a place for Catholics peasants and Lithuanians in ethnolopitical program created by M. Muravjev. According to Muravjev's view this group was not able to influence present and future ethnopolitical situation. The analysis of political situation in 1863 - 1865 allows us to assert, that Lithuanians according to Muravjev was an ethnocultural group that had to form a support for Russian power in Northwest Territories. Russian Orthodox peasants were reliable, but their intellectual level according to M. Muravjev was insufficient. The third criterion not very clearly set by Muravjev was the local origin. All persons originated from this territory were unreliable. He also had distrust towards Jewish people. Having in mind the first two criteria, it may seem, that M. Muravjev had to commit execution of his ethnopolitical program to Russian Orthodox clergy, Russian nobles and to Baltic Germans, but the nobles' behavior during revolt time assured governor-general that it was not reliable. Even Russian Orthodox clergy according to M. Muravjev was not reliable to accomplish his intentions. The very fact of "revolt" was for him a sufficient argument showing that this social group itself was not able to create necessary for Russian power support in this territory. In this situation M. Muravjev gave credence mainly to the officials who came from Great Russian provinces and who had strictly to carry out his guideline.

LIA SARLIN.
SOCIAL AND POLITICAL PROBLEMS OF BALTIC PROVINCE AS EXPOSED IN ARTICLES BY N. LESKOV IN 1880s.
The article focuses on statements Leskov made in the czarist press of Russia about the issues of Estonia. Leskov published altogether 17 articles and shorter notes in the dailies of the capital city Saint Petersburg about Estonia, which belong to the creative heritage of that author, broadening our outlook of him, the specificity of his work, and also his literary career and personality. It is pointed out in the research that Leskov holds a distinctive place among Russian writers and public figures who nurtured some interest towards the Baltic Province. His observations and notices are of great interest, from our perspective, knowing as he did the life in Estonia, pained as he was by all manifestations of injustice and abuse evidenced there. An activist, he never missed a chance to stand up against inequity.

SOFIJA FILIPCHIK.
LETTERS TO M. ZDZIECHOWSKI BY G. N. TRUBETSKOI (1907 - 1928).
Publication, foreword, and commentary by S. Filipchik. A publication of 32 letters written by well-known Russian diplomat, public man and publicist Grigoriy Trubetskoi (1874 - 1930) to outstanding Polish Slavonic scholar Marian Zdziechowski (1861 - 1938). Since 1906 Polish scientist cooperate with Russian magazine "Moskovskij ezhenedelnik" ("Moscow Weekly"), edited by brothers Evgeniy and Grigoriy Trubetskoi. In the letters written before the World War I from Russia to Krakow took place a discussion on the recent publications in the magazine, on national relations between Russians and Poles, on religious problems. In the letters of 1920s written from Paris to Wilno (Vilnius), where Zdziechowski lived after the World War I, main themes were as following: situation of Russian emigration, perspectives of Poland and Russia approaching, essential unity of Catholic and Russian Orthodox churches.

JOLITA STEPONAITIENE.
ARCHIVE HERITAGE OF MSTISLAV DOBUJINSKY IN THE STOCK OF LITHUANIAN NATIONAL LIBRARY.
The paper deals with a history of appearance and further formation of archive of Mstislav Dobujinsky (1875 - 1957) in Lithuanian National Library. A detailed review of the stock (6028 of described and 700 preliminary described units of issue) of famous Russian artist - biographical materials, manuscripts of articles and poems, letters, manuscripts of members of the family and relatives, everyday documents, iconography - is presented. Of a great interest is a preserved correspondence with well-known Lithuanian and Russian figures of culture, writers and artists (list of correspondents exceeds 300 names).

EDUARD MEKSH.
A. I. FORMAKOV (1900 - 1983). BIOGRAPHY (ACCORDING TO MEMORIES OF HER DAUGHTER E. FORMAKOVA).
Publication, foreword, and commentary by E. B. Meksh. Publication of biography of Russian poet Arsenij Formakov written by her daughter Evgenija Formakova. The biography was written in the beginning of 1990-th and is kept in the archive of the poet in the Center of Russian Culture (M. Kallistratov's House) in Daugavpils (Latvia). The biography in details introduces the reader to family, morals and manners and course of life of the teacher, journalist and literati. A. I. Formakov was in Latvia born. He lived and worked in Daugavpils between two world wars. Three books of his poems collections and two novels were published in Riga and Daugavpils. During soviet occupation he was under repression. After exoneration in 1955 he was engaged in literary work, translated poetry and prose into Latvian.

 

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